A citation gives credit to a source for a quote, or identifies the book, website, etc as the original source of a paraphrase or summary



I.)When using any fact, when summarizing, or when making a conclusion  that you wouldn’t know before reading the source (quote or paraphrase ok)

II.) When using any fact, when summarizing, or when making a conclusion  that your audience could doubt  (quote or paraphrase ok)


III. Anytime you are using Expert Knowledge (almost always as direct quote)

1) Authority “tip”


2) insider/unknown info/”from the source” statements


3) Statistics


4) Dates


5) Detailed facts or detailed descriptions


6) Figures/Numbers


7) Quantities


8) locations


9) Exact ways


10) who/what/when


11) case studies/examples/”In the Case of”


*QUOTES should not “float alone” in a paragraph.  Should be introduced by a few words, then a comma or a colon.

BAD: “Forty people knew about the Roadhouse Scandal.” BETTER: Betty Foster was not the only person in on the secret: “Over forty people knew about the Roadhouse Scandal.”

Using a Quote: How to give credit with citation in your paper?


1) In-line use: (no citation needed at end of sentence)

In talking about aluminum bats, Coach Dave Van Horn of the University of Nebraska said in his book Baseball Dreams: “What new bats are going to do is…change things as far-ranging as the line-up, the batting order, and even recruiting.”


II. Direct Quote: (citation is needed at end of sentence)
[note: in this case the quote is used as part of the T in TPEO]

Any good player can hit a ball hard with an aluminum bat, but it takes real talent to hit a ball hard with a wood bat: “You’ve got to be a better hitter with a wood bat, and more consistent. This develops better mechanics, and prepares college athletes for the next level of baseball” (Miller 68). 


III. Direct Quote/Block Quote (you are quoting more than 3 lines, must indent): (citation is needed at end of sentence)

A team can argue that aluminum bats may cost more per unit, but the lesser durability of wood compared to aluminum can make non-aluminum bats a worse investment.  For example,

“The Phoenix College baseball program considered investing in six aluminum bats for the

price of $250 each, which equals a $1500 investment.  The same team then priced wood  for

the same quantity of bats, getting a bid for 6 composite wood bats for $150 a piece, for a total

of $900.  This lower bid won.  However, all 6 bats were shattered before the end of the

season, for a replacement cost of $900 more – a total cost of $1800 with 1 more month left

 of potential broken bats.” (Taylor interview). 


IV. Paraphrase/Summary: (citation is needed at end of sentence)

Perhaps one of the best examples of the affect of the aluminum bat to a players’ development can be found in the playing days of Florida State’s second baseman, Marshall McDougall.  In May 1999, McDougall hit six homeruns and collected sixteen RBI’s against the University of Maryland (Pedersen 11).



V. Different ways a Citation can look in a paper:


1) (Sammans 121).  [Book or magazine or website, with author and page #]


2) (Sammans).  [Website, with author but no page #]


3) (“Yahoo.com”).    [website with NO author and NO title listed]


    (“Yahoo website”).



4) (“We run the show” 7).  [magazine article, with TITLE, but NO author, but DOES have page #]


5) (“Life after the Internet” ).  [website article, with TITLE, with NO author]



6) (Myers Interview).  [interview]



7)  (45).   [You are using a 2nd or 3rd quote in a paragraph where you have already identified and quoted from same book]

Sample use of quote as part of P in TPEO; use of an inline quote; and expert knowledge quote [note: Topic Sentence here is the 2nd sentence in this ex.]:

            In any competitive sport, no one wants anyone to get hurt: “Before safety measures were put into effect, baseball suffered many casualties” (Lee 141).  Safety issues on the playing field increase immensely when aluminum bats are present.  Teams across the country are beginning to return to the traditional wood bat; one of those teams is the Wellesley Raiders.  Eric Winer, president of the Wellesley American Little League, said in the July issue of Greater Boston Magazine, “We had an incident last year…when one of our top pitchers, Billy Hughto, got struck by a line drive of a metal batted ball and was out for the season.”  This incident easily helped Eric Winer make the decision to switch from aluminum to wood.  Winer was not alone in making the safety choice: “The Millburn Mullvers tried aluminum bats, but quickly switched back after a line drive broke the hand of the first baseman despite gloves.  This kind of line drive with wood bats had never led to an injury” (“Millburn Mullvers website”).


 Sample use of quote as part of P in TPEO; and use  of citation for summary/paraphrases : [the paraphrase was in the use of equations in the Adair book]

            With the improved technology and advances in aluminum bats, games are now more dangerous for pitchers and infielders.  Though wooden bats haven’t been widely used in little league games for more than twenty years, it is still proven that “there are less batted ball injuries with wooden bats” (Greater Boston).  A ball batted off wood stores little energy and is only slightly more elastic that the ball, while an aluminum bat stores one-eleventh of the collision energy (Adair 98).  For instance a homerun hit 380 feet with a wooden bat will go about 415 feet with an aluminum bat (Adair 99).  As a result, the playing field becomes more of a danger zone with aluminum bats. 

VI. Punctuating the citation:

For a book/magazine/website WITH Author

In parenthesis, Authors Last name  and the page number. 

No comma between Authors last name and page # 

No underlining or bold of name.

EG (Jones 45).

Or for website: (Jones).


If making another quote or attribution in the same paragraph, using the same author, and no other sources in that same paragraph, can just use page number:

In parenthesis, the page number.  For example (56).


For a website or article WITHOUT author:

In parenthesis, In quotations, shortened form of title of the article and the page number. 

No comma between article title and page # 

No underlining or bold.

For example, if full Article story were,

“The Wilderness Doctor Who Always Knew,” MD Magazine June 2001: 22

YOU MAY shorten the title:  For example, (“Wilderness Doctor” 22)


For example, if http address was http://historydoctor.com/bios/travelers/as443.d/332.Sayer.asp?xxBelarus.html and the website’s article’s title were, “The Crazy Doctor who lived in the Sahara

YOU MAY shorten address to:  For example, (“historydoctor.com”)


YOU MAY use the website’s article’s shortened title:  For example, (“The Crazy Doctor”)



To attribute a quote that is already quoted in your book or from an interview, use qtd.

For example: In court, Jones did remember saying “Elsa threatened, ‘Beware of me.’” (qtd. in Jones 65)




1) Block Quotes: When quoting more than 3 lines:

            a) Indent quote (no quotation marks needed)

            b) place citation at the end


2) Using Brackets and ellipsis: […]: When quoting parts of a section, for example the first sentence and 5th sentence, and you don’t need what’s in-between, can use brackets and ellipsis.