CLASS 4: 7 steps of Writing Effectively:

focus: American AUDIENCE



Look at the following story from AZ Central about Chandler Gilbert and careers: (Links to an external site.) 


QUIZ 1 QUESTION SETUP  (there will be 3 Q’s based on this and article on quiz)

A)On Discussion group 3: Cut and paste the below categories and fill them out BRIEFLY.


In this article about CGCC, briefly fill out, in your opinion 1-5 below:
2)Outlook (tone, agenda, point of view) 
3)Why Now (Timing) 
4)Impact So Far (what does the story change or support/diminishes) 
5)So What  
6)Implications (who and what does story affect)@

B)Quiz questions removed…C’mon…you didn’t think it would be that easy to find them before actual quiz day?

your sources for your research paper?@


Flashback to last week warning about job application id theft:


8 Absolutely No Bullshit Things Every Entrepreneur Should Know




HOW quizzes are graded: 0-10 pts (magic number = 80)
10: DETAILED answer with supporting quote(s) or example(s) from reading
9: Detailed, but 1 weak part / not best quote or example

8: OKAY detail, but weak or no quote
6-7: It could be written by someone without reading/referencing article


REMINDER: 120/25 students go to Career Services + selfie   (1 so far) by NEXT THURSDAY to reduce to 7/8 arguments in final research paper


I)Discuss HW 1 results / Collect HW 1


ENG101 HW2 DUE TUESDAY (on the Career Analysis handout): Any Questions?

II)What are the 7 steps ANY piece of public writing must go through before presenting?

I. Prewriting: PARTS +Audience (Audience, timing, 10 tools/ tones of appeal, etc)

II. Brainstorming content/ outline or notes, googling, research 


III. starter draft/ zero draft (purpose)


IV. first draft


V.  Revising [for content] drafts


VI. Proofreading [for errors]


VII. S.olution/Final Draft/Presentation





III)American AUDIENCE issues are IMPT when figuring out the Problem and the Analysis of P.A.R.T.S. of a solution  



1)AUDIENCE: are you writing/presenting/marketing like a diary, only for yourself? If not, you have an audience.  Question to ask about AUDIENCE as you start to work past ‘P’ of PARTS BUT ALWAYS BEFORE Planning or writing:
(A) What is your main audience? What kind of things do they want to read/ see that establishes your purpose (entertain, anger, persuade, sell, etc)?

(B)Do your topics and general tone match that audience and your purpose or do they ‘turn off’ or offend? 

(C)Can you narrate, write, your specific experience or a product in a way that has strong appeal to your target audience, but enough cross-over value for a general audience?

(D)Are there any cultural differences that don’t translate or taboos that will create issues/change the mood of how they receive your purpose/message?

[to be address in OCT : GLOBAL AUDIENCE]


Why profile an audience?: avoid unnecessary work, goals, solution dead ends, inappropriate language/images, examples inappropriate for intended audience





American AUDIENCE centered SCENARIO:
Problem: sell a car.  

PROBLEM w/AUDIENCE: How do you target the middle class population now in their 30’s -40’s (minivan dads & soccer moms) with kids, that grew up with pop hip hop and want to think of themselves as ‘the cool parents’, when you are selling minivans…


Hand Gestures, auto tune, etc…
What hip hop tropes did they research?

 --- what did they do to reach the specific audience demographic? Images?  Music?  Words/lyrics?  Actors?  Humor?


Did they get those right? 

--What would car product be for 17-24 year olds?  What would change about the commercial? 
Images?  Music?  Words/lyrics?  Actors?  Humor?




Do you think the Solution (The Swagger Wagon video) of PARTS + Audience (Presentation) above was successful analysis of the Problem – meaning hitting primarily the target audience (30-40’s) “without alienating ancillary demographics” (younger or older minivan buyers and riders)?  Why / Why not?



STEP 1: Attention to your main audience


**Attention to audience CAN change how you choose and analyze your topic choice, your words, and your images**


How would a presentation/ biographical INTRO be different if your audience were

Hire you for an office job

Just students  (and they vote on your grade)

People who are raising money to give you a scholarship

People who believe college is a waste of money

People in a skate park





BELOW: Even if the first is less violent than the second….

What audience concerns got the first banned in the US (by Xbox marketing)  since the theater shooting, while the second was not?


Xbox fake shooting commercial (was banned):


Vs Call of Duty Black ops Commercial:
Primary audience is?   Crossover audience by which method?




STEP 2:  Hooking GENERAL Audience Appeal



ALL cultures, within their society’s norms, have about 10 marketing or persuasive approaches – tools or categories of how to tell story (tone), of choosing topics for writing, towards hooking an audience’s attention. 


If you re-write or punch up or adapt your specific ‘story’ (fiction, product commercial, political ad, etc) in one of these 10 tones, you hook a general audience more easily and can translate to same audience in a different culture more easily



Every culture defines each of these 10 attention-getting hooks/approaches differently (what is merely controversial in one culture (Janet Jackson exposed breasts during Superbowl), is punishable by jail in another (In India, an actress returning to her rural village was nearly set fire for a movie where she showed her breasts in a honeymoon movie scene)   is boring in another  (almost every beach in Spain is topless optional).



10 Universal TOOLS (or themes) in telling story/choosing topics
 to hook General audience appeal 

(different for each culture, may not translate between different cultures, but every culture has these ‘hooks’ for attention)

1)Universal ‘human’ drama : tragedy, drama, family, loneliness, etc   


2)Fantasy roleplay (eg Axe Spray, Sports Videogames)

3)Ride or react to a Trend (eg Vampire genre)



5) Celebrity or sexual or heroic character’s endorsement (“Be Like Mike”, Japan’s Ronald McDonald: )




7)Desire to be successful /cool




9)Disarming of a Fear


10)Over the top or Controversial