CLASS 2: Criticial Thinking I/ Intro to Analysis


Quiz DEMO: (Check Cashing… 114-117)

1) Why don’t payday lenders fall under the Community Reinvestment Act?
2)Why are pay day loan places financed by large banks (part of the banking ecosystem) in economically deprived areas instead of just setting up branches? (Hint: it's not primarily fear of bank robbery)  and your id# (attendance sheet)





Iphone vs Android: Which would you buy?  Why?

Now what if…***You are contracting for your company: ten for executives + 300 for salespeople who’s job function depends on phone access?***


*You just exercised analysis (specifically compare and contrast);

*You just used Critical Thinking


What is Analysis?

“An analysis is an argument in which you study the parts of something to understand how it works, what it means, or why it might be significant. The writer of an analysis uses an analytical tool: a principle or definition (THESIS) on the basis of which an object, an event, or a behavior can be divided into parts and examined.   (Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum, 11th ed)


ANALYSIS is Looking for the WHY and the PARTS





Academic Writing

Experimental and lab reports analyze the meaning or implications of the study results in the Discussion section.

Research papers analyze information in sources or apply theories to material

being reported.

Process analyses break down the steps or stages involved in completing a


Literary analyses examine characterization, plot, imagery, or other elements

in works of literature.

Essay exams demonstrate understanding of course material by analyzing

data using course concepts.


Workplace Writing

Grant proposals analyze the issues you seek funding for in order to


Business plans break down and analyze capital outlays, expenditures,

products, materials, and the like.

Medical charts record analytical thinking and writing in relation to patient

symptoms and possible options.

Legal briefs break down and analyze facts of cases and elements of legal

precedents and apply legal rulings and precedents to new situations.

Case studies describe and analyze the particulars of a specific medical,

social service, advertising, or business case.




(1)A thesis that appears convincing and legitimate and well matched to the object being studied; and

(2) A thesis well supported by actions/arguments and data/details/research



Presenting a summary.
Easily defeated arguments or actions that have more problems than benefit.

Crappy research data/details/research.




What is Critical Thinking?:
“Critical thinking involves a mode of thinking about any subject, content, or problem in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge  of each step in the process of thinking and the conclusions reached as a result of that thinking (Richard Paul, Foundation for Critical Thinking,


The bottom line is that you must be aware of your own thoughts and how they affect your conclusions. How can you do things better?  How can you be more efficient?  How can you be more precise and rigorous against opposition?




III. Steps for [Critical Thinking] Analysis (of anything):  PTARP

A)  Problem: WHAT is the REAL question/problem: What is the REAL question/the goal/the purpose/what are you try to prove or solve?   
Be aware of SUBTEXT…the motives and ‘side effects’ of the problem…
eg Hiring Committee mistake…Where do you see yourself in five years? Real purpose was…  example 2: lawyer: ‘how often do you beat children’

B)  THESIS: Your Thesis/Solution: Propose, from your POV, an answer: this is your THESIS.  Has to take a stance/action.   Can’t be general/free of risk. Be careful in wording.  You are responsible for proving, doing, everything you say you will.

C)  ACTIONS: Actions/Arguments are each steps towards solution/thesis: Identify the most common issues/risks/beliefs for your ‘thesis’/ solution as arguments/impressions/opinions/and troubleshoots.  These are the STEPS towards your solution or action plan.  In an essay, each argument is its own paragraph or chapter.

D)  RESEARCH: Research and Identify the expert knowledge/the quotes for or against your arguments/steps towards your solution.  What is the evidence, the data, common belief, the most common praise or complaints for each argument/step.

E)  PRESENTATION:  Present with interesting, accurate details and images appropriate for your audience.  Make sure it leverages arguments supported by research to support Thesis and doesn’t go off topic/off question!


Why do you need to be able to do Analysis via PTARP steps?

Real life doesn’t have a quick direct question-and-answer!  It has scenarios?


70-100 Solutions Architecture exam



Problem (the way reality puts it):  Manager: I am sitting here in front of the computer and a fly got trapped here somehow.  There’s this one fly driving me crazy.  I keep trying to hit him with this newspaper, but he gets away every time.  No, I don’t want your help.  It’s personal now: I’m going to get him, even if I get no work done.  I have an appointment coming up.  I’m going to send you if I don’t catch this fly.   It’s just to deliver some bad news to the VP, so I wasn’t looking forward to it anyway.   I’ll email you the presentation in a few minutes.  You can go in my place.  You can figure it out as you present. Meetings in twenty minutes.


So now… PTARP: this scenario….

Problem is:????   **How do I swat a fly.**

Thesis: I’m going to teach you how to get that fly

     Why isn’t it, “I’m going to get that fly for you” ??
      Because…   ***He’ll say ‘you did that so well, you are definitely  
                            going to do the presentation instead of me’

Action/Argument:  Flies are fast, the best way is to get him is just as he’s flying away, using this one fact about flies.

Research:  Quote: “Flies take off backward.” 

Presentation: So…(based on research): ***“in order to swat one, you must strike slightly behind him”***



*Issue of Subtext….apply criticial thinking: what’s the real problem issue with guy/scenario above?




IV. DISCUSS, give out: HW 1…. Use PTARP to analyze

ENG101 HW 1: Analysis Breakdown
business scenario
à Commercial solution



SCHOOL PAPER/WRITING when there’s little time to PTARP analyze…


Give out cracking essay handout…

V SAMPLE Analysis FOR A TIMED ESSAY (w/tips): Artificial Skin Essay:
fast PTARP  steps including SOCRAPR (for open ended essays)









Exampl of SOCRAPR: Comparison:

[The Wizard of Oz] was originally written as a political allegory about grass-

roots protest. It may seem harder to believe than Emerald City, but the Tin

Woodsman is the industrial worker, the Scarecrow [is] the struggling

farmer, and the Wizard is the president, who is powerful only as long as he

succeeds in deceiving the people.




1) Analysis=PTARP every time before you ANSWER or do anything of consequence
P(roblem): IDENTIFY What’s the real Problem  and subtext 

[Do these pants make me look fat? ]

T(hesis): Your solution or take on a problem

A(ctions/Arguments): Each step or reason your Thesis is true/best solution

R(esearch) :  research also includes polling staff, coworkers, etc

P(resentation):  detailed with examples and troubleshooting (counterarguments) + right for audience



2)Cracking a timed essay:

a)Circle the things the assignment wants you to answer. 
b)Write the ‘right’ question in your own words before you read the ‘data’
c)show your work:underline or write down the answers to the ‘right’ question as SOON as you
             find it

d)then worry about quick intro, quick sentences, quick conclusion


3)Cracking the open writing essay:  (not very specific, write about A, B, C  etc)
a)If you have some idea that you are sure of, begin writing list of arguments, then underline or
            list examples on your scrap paper

b)If stuck, consider SOCRAPR for thesis and then analyze